Automatically shrink your VM disk images when you delete files

If you use VMs a lot, you know that with the most popular qcow2 disk format, the disk image starts small, but grows with every filesystem change happening inside the VM. Deleting files inside the VM doesn’t shrink it. Of course that wastes a lot of disk space on your host – the VMs often contain gigabytes of freed space inside the VM, but not on the host. Shrinking the VM images is possible, but tedious and slow. Well, recently I learned that’s actually not true anymore. You can use the TRIM command, used to signalize to SSD drives that some space can be freed, to do the same in virtualization stack – signalize from VM to host that some space can be freed, and the disk image shrunk. How to do that? As usual, this is a shameless copy of instructions found elsewhere on the Internets. The instructions assume you’re using virt-manager or libvirt directly.

First, you need to using qcow2 images, not raw images (you can configure this when adding new disks to your VM).

Second, you need to set your disk bus to SCSI (not VirtIO, which is the default).

disk-scsi

Third, you need to set your SCSI Controller to VirtIO SCSI (not hypervisor default).

controller-scsi

Fourth, you need to edit your VM configuration file using virsh edit vmname and adjust your hard drive’s driver line to include discard='unmap', e.g. like this:

<disk type='file' device='disk'>
 <driver name='qemu' type='qcow2' discard='unmap'/>

And that’s it. Now you boot your VM and try to issue:

$ sudo fstrim -av
/boot: 319.8 MiB (335329280 bytes) trimmed
/: 101.5 GiB (108928946176 bytes) trimmed

You should see some output printed, even if it’s just 0 bytes trimmed, and not an error.

If you’re using LVM, you’ll also need to edit /etc/lvm/lvm.conf and set:

issue_discards = 1

Then it should work, after a reboot.

Now, if you want trimming to occur automatically in your VM, you have two options (I usually do both):

Enable the fstrim timer that trims the system once a week by default:

$ sudo systemctl enable fstrim.timer

And configure the root filesystem (and any other one you’re interested in) to issue discard command automatically after each file is deleted. Edit /etc/fstab and add a discard mount option, like this:

UUID=6d368798-f4c2-44f9-8334-6be3c64cc449 / ext4 defaults,discard 1 1

And that’s it. Try to create a big file using dd, watch your VM image grow. Then delete the file, watch the image shrink. Awesome. If only we had this by default.

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Automatically shrink your VM disk images when you delete files

SSH to your VMs without knowing their IP address

This is a shameless copy of this blog post, but I felt like I need to put it here as well, so that I can find it the next time I need it 🙂

libvirt approach

When you run a lot of VMs, especially for testing, every time with a fresh operating system, connecting to them is a pain, because you always need to figure out their IP address first. Turns out that is no longer true. I simply added this snippet to my ~/.ssh/config:

# https://penguindroppings.wordpress.com/2017/09/20/easy-ssh-into-libvirt-vms-and-lxd-containers/
# NOTE: doesn't work with uppercase VM names
Host *.vm
 CheckHostIP no
 Compression no
 UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null
 StrictHostKeyChecking no
 ProxyCommand nc $(virsh domifaddr $(echo %h | sed "s/\.vm//g") | awk -F'[ /]+' '{if (NR>2 && $5) print $5}') %p

and now I can simply execute ssh test.vm for a VM named test and I’m connected! A huge time saver. It doesn’t work with uppercase letters in VM names and I didn’t bother to try to fix that. Also, since I run VMs just for testing purposes, I disabled all ssh security checks (you should not do that for important machines).

avahi approach

There’s also a second approach I used for persistent VMs (those that survive for longer than a single install&reboot cycle). You can use Avahi to search for a hostname on the .local domain to find the IP address. Fedora has this enabled by default (if you have nss-mdns package installed, I believe, which should be by default). So, in the VM, set a custom hostname, for example f27:

$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname f27
$ reboot

Now, you can run ssh f27.local and it should connect you to the VM automatically.

SSH to your VMs without knowing their IP address

UEFI for QEMU now in Fedora repositories

I haven’t seen any announcement, but I noticed Fedora repositories now contain edk2-ovmf package. That is the package that is necessary to emulate UEFI in QEMU/KVM virtual machines. It seems all licensing issues having been finally resolved and now you can easily run UEFI systems in your virtual machines!

I have updated Using_UEFI_with_QEMU wiki page accordingly.

Enjoy.

UEFI for QEMU now in Fedora repositories

glxosd and voglperf now available for Fedora in COPR

For all our gaming enthusiasts, I packaged glxosd and voglperf for Fedora and you can find them in my COPR repositories: glxosd COPR and voglperf COPR.

These tools allow you to have FRAPS-like features on Linux, i.e. show an overlay in OpenGL games/apps to display current FPS, and also capture the frame times into a file and plot them to a graph later. So you can now use it with any Linux game and fine-tune its graphics settings to match your preferred performance. Or you can see when your CPU or GPU is overheating. Or you can contribute to Open Game Benchmarks. Or something else.

This is an example of the glxosd overlay in action (don’t worry, its output is configurable):

glxosd-chivalry.png
glxosd overlay

And if you want, you can later plot the performance into such pretty graphs using this awesome glxosd analyser web page:

glxosdGraph-fps.png
fps graph
glxosdGraph-frametimes.png
frame times graph

And this is an example of the voglperf overlay (top left corner):

voglperf-xcom.png
voglperf overlay

And a generated graph:

voglperf-frametimes.png
frame times graph

There are other similar tools which you can use, but I know about any that is generic and has all these features. There is of course the Steam FPS overlay, but you can only use it for Steam games, and it can’t log frame information. There’s also GALLIUM_HUD, but that’s only available for Gallium-enabled drivers (radeon, nouveau) and also can’t log frame information. These two new tools should work with any driver and can be used for any game/app.

You can find installation instructions in the linked COPR repos. I do not intend to move these packages to official Fedora repos, but if somebody is willing to get their hands dirty and work on that, great, please contact me and I’ll try to help.

Enjoy!

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glxosd and voglperf now available for Fedora in COPR

GALLIUM_HUD: FRAPS-like FPS overlay for Linux

I have long been looking for a simple way to display the current FPS in games (without direct support in the game), similar to what FRAPS or other tools do in Windows. For Linux, I haven’t had too much luck. There are not many tools for this and usually there are some problems with them – either they are not packaged and complication is difficult, or they don’t work reliably, or they can’t display FPS overlay in the game, just log to a file. But this weekend, I have finally been lucky.

I have stumbled upon an older article from Phoronix: Gallium3D Gets A Heads-Up Display For Information. Gallium3D is a graphics acceleration framework that is currently used by radeon and nouveau drivers. By simply setting an environment variable, you can get a live on-screen overlay displaying lots of useful information:

gallium-fraps

This is pretty amazing and it does exactly what I was looking for. The usage is really simple – to see the available options, just run:

$ GALLIUM_HUD="help" glxgears
Syntax: GALLIUM_HUD=name1[+name2][...][:value1][,nameI...][;nameJ...]

  Names are identifiers of data sources which will be drawn as graphs
  in panes. Multiple graphs can be drawn in the same pane.
  There can be multiple panes placed in rows and columns.

  '+' separates names which will share a pane.
  ':[value]' specifies the initial maximum value of the Y axis
             for the given pane.
  ',' creates a new pane below the last one.
  ';' creates a new pane at the top of the next column.

  Example: GALLIUM_HUD="cpu,fps;primitives-generated"

  Available names:
    fps
    cpu
    cpu0
    cpu1
    cpu2
    cpu3
    samples-passed

In Fedora 20, only basic options like fps and cpu are available. In Fedora Rawhide with newer graphics stack, there are many more options. But I’m fully content with just the basic ones. Now I can run games like this:

$ GALLIUM_HUD="fps,cpu+cpu0+cpu1+cpu2+cpu3:100" mygame

And I have pretty two graphs of FPS and CPU usage. You can run steam the same way, and then see the overlay on each game started from it. And, as a bonus, you can even run totem or vlc (with GL output) like this and see actual FPS of your video rendering 🙂

I’m really excited about this. This is how I imagine a modern operating system to look like – useful features directly integrated into its core and very easily accessible (hell, it can’t get even easier than setting an environment variable!). Thanks Marek Olšák and AMD for implementing this. You really made my day.

The only drawback is that because it’s implemented in Gallium3D, it works only on Gallium3D-enabled drivers, which means opensource AMD and Nvidia drivers. No binary drivers and no Intel drivers can benefit from this. Marek explained that it had been very simple to implement this inside Gallium3D, but it would be very tricky to implement this on a level that would affect all the drivers. So there you have it, the opensource drivers now have a killer feature that proprietary drivers don’t 🙂 Just the Intel situation is unfortunate, maybe they’ll reconsider this some time in the future.

Enjoy.

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GALLIUM_HUD: FRAPS-like FPS overlay for Linux

KVM disk performance: raw vs qcow2 format

Some time ago I compared disk drivers performance in KVM. Today I compared different storage formats – raw and qcow2. Let’s have a look:

Test procedure: Create an empty 10 GB image, attach to VM using VirtIO driver, boot F20 Alpha Live x86_64, measure the time of installation. Repeat installation once again, this time reusing the existing image (instead of creating a new one). Do this for both formats.

Test results:

raw 1st pass          2:36
raw 2nd pass          2:38
qcow2 1st pass        2:36
qcow2 2nd pass        2:44

As you can see, the results are very much the same. It seems it doesn’t matter much which format you use.

But, qcow2 format has some nice additional features, like copy-on-write cloning. If I need to test something very quickly in my existing VM and then revert the changes back, this is the easiest way:

$ cd /var/lib/libvirt/images
$ mv f19.qcow2 f19.qcow2_orig
$ qemu-img create -f qcow2 -b f19.qcow2_orig f19.qcow2
Formatting 'f19.qcow2', fmt=qcow2 size=10737418240 backing_file='f19.qcow2_orig' encryption=off cluster_size=65536 lazy_refcounts=off
$ # Run the VM now and do your tasks
$ mv f19.qcow2_orig f19.qcow2

Enjoy.

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KVM disk performance: raw vs qcow2 format

Experiment with bleeding-edge GNOME using GnomeOSTree

I have just discovered GnomeOSTree (I’ve heard about it before, but never tried it). It allows you to run an absolutely fresh version of GNOME (checked out from git the very day) in a virtual machine. This is perfect for

  • experimenting with new features
  • checking whether a bug still exists in the development version
  • checking whether a bug fix is correct, without waiting for a distribution package update

I’ve just played with it for 10 minutes, so I might be missing a lot of things, but this seems to be a very useful tool for anyone testing and reporting GNOME bugs. It’s extremely easy to set up, you just download a VM disk image and import it into virt-manager. Later you can update it from inside the system. Try it!

ostree

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Experiment with bleeding-edge GNOME using GnomeOSTree